Sunday, February 8, 2015

074 TOKOH JOHOR: DATUK SERI AMAR DIRAJA






DATUK ABD RAHMAN BIN ANDAK
DATUK SERI AMAR DIRAJA 
JOHOR

Masa aku sekolah menengah dulu, terdapat beberapa sekolah menengah aliran Melayu yang agak popular kerana namanya agak ganjil berbanding dengan nama sekolah-sekolah lain.  Sekolah-sekolah tersebut ialah Sekolah Dato’ Seri Amar Diraja (SDAD) di Muar, Sekolah Dato’ Bentara Luar (SDBL) di Batu Pahat, Sekolah Dato’ Bentara Dalam di Segamat, Sekolah Dato’ Penggawa Barat di Pontian dan Sekolah Dato Penggawa Timur di JB.


Rupanya, gelaran-gelaran tersebut menggambarkan bahawa sejak pertengahan abad ke 19, semasa dalam pemerintahan Maharaja Abu Bakar dan sebelum menyertai Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, Negeri Johor telah merdeka dan mempunyai sistem pentadbiran yang sistematik. Kalau negeri-negeri lain, Dato’ Bergelar hanyalah satu gelaran yang dianugerahi oleh Sultan dan hanya terlibat dengan urusan adat istiadat sahaja, di Johor ia berbeza.  Dato’ Bergelar yang diwujudkan merupakan Pegawai Kerajaan (sekarang Pegawai Tadbir Negeri) yang mempunyai fungsi khusus.

Dalam pemerintahannya, Baginda Sultan Abu Bakar mempunyai senarai orang-besar terdiri dari kalangan anak negeri (Melayu) yang berpendidikan dan bijak bestari.  Peranan Orang-orang Besar ini adalah seperti Jemaah Menteri. Mereka ialah:
  • Dato Seri Amar DiRaja (Setiausaha Kerajaan Negeri) – Dato Abdul Rahman bin Andak.
  • Dato Bentara Luar (Ketua Jabatan Tanah dan Pegawai Pembangunan Negeri) – Dato’ Muhammad Salleh bin Perang.
  • Dato Bentara Dalam (Pegawai Pelajaran Negeri) – Dato’ Muhammad Ibrahim Munsyi Abdullah.
  • Dato Seri Setia DiRaja (Ketua Polis Negeri) – Dato’ Abdullah bin Tahir.
  • Dato Penggawa Barat (Pegawai Daerah Wilayah Barat Johor) – Dato Abdul Samad bin Ibrahim.
  • Dato Penggawa Timur (Pegawai Daerah Wilayah Timur Johor) – Dato’ Jaafar bin Nong Yahya.
Mereka ini bukan terhad kepada kalangan yang berketurunan orang besar sahaja, tetapi juga dari kalangan rakyat biasa.

Bagaimanapun dalam zaman pemerintahan Sultan Ibrahim peranan penjawat-penjawat di atas semakin terhakis dengan kemasukan Penasihat-penasihat Inggeris yang mempengaruhi pihak istana. Peranan penasihat dari kalangan pembesar Melayu mula diketepikan malah ada dari kalangan mereka dinasihatkan untuk bersara atau dibersarakan.

Sebab itulah, selepas merdeka dalam Malaysia, Johor memang terkenal melahirkan tokoh-tokoh yang berpendidikan tinggi di peringkat kebangsaan seperti Dato’ Sir Onn Jaafar, Tun Dr Ismail Abd Rahman, Tun Hussein Onn, Datuk Sulaiman Abd Rahman,Tun Sardon Jubir, Tun Fatimah Hashim, Tun Sulaiman Ninam Shah, Tan Sri Abd Kadir Yusof, Tan Sri Syed Nasir, Tan Sri Syed Jaafar Albar, Prof Ungku Aziz, Tun Dr Awang Hassan dan lain-lain lagi.

Malah, sejak zaman Tunku, Tun Razak, Tun Hussein, Tun Dr Mahathir, Tun Abdullah dan zaman Dato Sri Najib sekarang, kita lihat peratus wakil rakyat dari Johor adalah sentiasa paling tinggi di kalangan Menteri dan Timbalan Menteri dari Johor.


Tokoh Yang Makin Dilupai



Nama dan jasa Dato Seri Amar Diraja telah semakin dilupakan oleh rakyat Johor sendiri. Dalam Tajuk blog kali ini aku ingin mengungkap sedikit untuk kita mengenali siapa dia Dato Seri Amar Diraja, apa peranan beliau dalam mempertahankan kemerdekaan dan pembangunan dan pemodenan negeri Johor. 

Dato’ Seri Amar Diraja (DSAD) atau nama sebenarnya Abdul Rahman bin Andak merupakan anak Johor yang  berpendidikan Inggeris dan dianggap sebagai antara pembesar negeri yang sangat pintar sehinggakan wujud usaha menyingkirkannya dari bumi sendiri. 

Semasa aku di Tingkatan 3 hingga 5, cikgu subjek Sejarah aku (Cikgu Uiop bin Kasim) pernah bercerita tentang kebijaksanaan DSAD ini telah menyebabkan Orang Inggeris gagal mempengaruhi Sultan Ibrahim Johor (supaya tidak mengikut telunjuk Mat Saleh) sehinggalah ke suatu ketika Mat Saleh menggunakan taktik kotor mempengaruhi Sultan supaya membenci dan memecat DSAD.  Mat Saleh amat takut dan sakit hati serta dengki dengan DSAD, bukan sebab dia rapat dengan Sultan tetapi kerana kebijaksanaannya serta kelebihannya yang fasih berbahasa Inggeris, dan amat memahami budaya serta mudah menghidu tipu helah Orang Inggeris untuk mempengaruhi Sultan. Inggeris sentiasa mencari jalan untuk menjauhkan dia dengan Sultan. Akhirnya Inggeris berjaya menyebabkan Sultan murka dan meemcat DSAD dan menyuruh tinggal di England sehingga mati.  Kira-kira macam buang negeri jauh-jauh supaya tidak boleh mencampuri urusan pentadbiran dalam negeri Johor. 

Diceritakan juga (tak pasti sama ada ia satu 'joke' atau 'true story'), Mat Saleh mati akal dengan kebijaksanaan DSAD semasa mengukur sempadan peta untuk Negeri Johor. Inggeris mencadangkan supaya menggunakan batang besi (pengukur ela)   sebagai alat pengukur.  Tapi DSAD membantah kerana mengikut teori sains, bahan besi ini berubah saiz mengikut cuaca.  Waktu cuaca panas, besi mengembang- besi ela menjadi panjang, bila cuaca sejuk, besi mengecut dan menjadi pendek. Ini akan menjadikan ukuran sempadan peta menjadi tidak tepat.  Lalu DSAD mencadangkan supaya menggunakan rotan kering sebagai alat pengukur kerana rotan tidak terjejas dengan perubahan cuaca- maka ukuran sentiasa tepat.

Jika DSAD tidak dipecat, mungkin Negeri Johor lebih awal diwujudkan sebagai sebuah negara merdeka (tidak dijajah oleh british) dan tidak perlu menyertai Persekutuan Tanah Melayu.

Berikut adalah ringkasan riwayat biografi Dato’ Seri Amar DiRaja Abdul Rahman Andak yang saya salin dari website www.brookwoodcemetry.com. Artkel asal ditulis oleh YBhg Dato Abdul Rahim bin Ramli, Setiausaha Majlis Jemaah DiRaja Johor yang juga bekas SUKN Johor.


DSAD with Johore and British

Abdul Rahman bin Andak was born in Telok Belanga Singapore on  13 June 1859, the son of Andak bin Meng who was later appointed as penghulu of Lenga in Muar and later as the district officer of Segamat in  1895. He had  his early education under Ibrahim Munshi. Maharaja Abu Bakar at that time childless sent a nephew Ungku Othman bin Abdul Rahman to be  educated in England. Abdul Rahman Andak even in his young days had shown talent and caught Abu Bakar'  eyes. He was sent to accompany Othman for further education in England. They left for England on 23 February 1871.

His English education was to prove vital in  his future career as one of the most able and influential man in Johor at the turn of the century. On 19 June 1878 he was recruited into government service upon graduating. Up to  1883 he served a s  the assistant secretary and chief translator. In  1886 he was conferred the Second Class Order of the Crown of Johor (DPMJ) and the  honorific title of Dato' Sri Amar DiRaja by Abu Bakar. In  1892 he received the First Class Order of the Crown of Johor (SPMJ).

By the  1880's the Johor government was taking the shape which would continue into the era of British intervention. Abu Bakar's administration consisted of meritocrats like Ibrahim Munshi and Mohd Salleh bin Perang who were his contemporaries and educated at Keasbury School. However the most meteoric individual career that was founded on ability and ambition, not nobility was that of Abdul Rahman Andak.

His first opportunity came in  1885 - when he was chosen by Maharaja Abu Bakar as one of his senior advisers to negotiate the Anglo-Johor Treaty by which Abu Bakar secured British recognition as Sultan of Johor. This visit to London was an attempt by Abu Bakar  to avert the possibility of his kingdom being brought under the Residential system of British rule. This was the first time Abdul Rahman had a brush in outmaneuvering the British especially Governor Weld.

In 1884 he became the private secretary to the Ruler and later as Secretary for Foreign Affairs. In 1893 he had occupied the post of State Secretary and sat on the State Council. For twenty years he was the expert and trusted advisor for Sultan Abu Bakar and Sultan Ibrahim for their dealings with the British in Singapore and London. Winstedt wrote Abdul Rahman practically ran the State in the Sultan's  absence. Cecil Smith suspected it was Abdul Rahman who drafted the Sultan's replies to communications From the Singapore authorities.

Under Abdul Rahman's influence Abu Bakar became increasingly reluctant to accept British advice. For 33 consecutive years Abu Bakar successfully preserved Johor's independence in the face of British forward movement and expansionist designs. Sultan Ibrahim a young ruler of twenty two had little administrative experience when he ascended the throne. He was more inclined to look to Abdul Rahman for guidance. Abdul Rahman had  given Ibrahim precious ideas of his position as absolute sovereign and the independence of Johor.

The spiteful abuse which exasperated British officials directed at him is sufficient evidence of his skill in frustrating their efforts to intervene or to exert pressure on Johor. The British strategy for intervention in Johor was three fold. First was to prevent the government from receiving advice and direction from its Advisory Board in London. Second was to press on for the construction o f  a railway line across Johor. The final strategy was to get rid of Abdul Rahman. 

The Johor Advisory Board in London founded by Abu Bakar was wholly financed by Johor. The primary objective of constituting the Board was to secure an accredited representative of the state in England who would be in a position to approach the Colonial Office and claim its attention. Abdul Rahman knew of a ploy to prevent the Board from offering advice to Ibrahim. Firstly with advice from the Colonial Oftice the Board suggested Johor to receive a loan of 200,000 Sterling Pounds on condition she accepts a Straits Settlement Auditor or alternatively join the Federated Malay States. On Abdul Rahman's  advice the plan was rejected.

Secondly the Board was not agreeable on Ibrahim's action of giving away large concessions of land to people in Britain. The differences in opinion between lbrahim and Abdul Rahman on one hand and the Board on the other came to a head in  1905 over a case involving the Johore State Corporation Ltd backed by Amsterdam financiers. The Board resigned en bloc on 20 October 1905. This was a triumph for the British. The British under Swettenham who was regarded as the architect of indirect British rule had planned for the construction of a railway line across Johor providing a link between the Federated Malay States and Singapore. Swettenham offered two alternatives, the first was that the FMS build the lines and provide loans to Johor. Secondly it was for Johor to provide its own finances but the lines will be built by the FMS. With Abdul Rahman's advice that the railway project be a Johor state enterprise the negotiations became protracted and grew into a bad tempered stalemate much to the impatience of the British. Ibrahim feared the acceptance of principal and other assistance Bom the British and the FMS would jeopardize  Johor's  independence.

Abdul Rahman was at the receiving end of abuse by  the British. Cecil Smith wrote of him "as a clever little fellow but an absolute nobody among the Malay aristocrats".  Other epithets cited are "corrupt"  and "a mischievous little dog". Swettenham denigrated him as "a  bad adviser for anyone, quite unscrupulous. .. . and dangerous because he speaks English and has to do with Europeans all his life."

An incident on January  1907 led Anderson to demand imperiously that he be dismissed. He was under the impression Abdul Rahman had sought to undermine an agreement to let the Johore Opium and Spirit Farm to the same tax farmers. History has proven in  actual fact Abdul Rahman's stance was based on a decision of the Johor State Council to discontinue joint letting of the farms since it was not in Johor's interest.

Ibrahim had no choice but to agree with Anderson. Abdul Rahman's  service as Deputy Menteri Besar was terminated and he was sent into an enforced exile to London in April 1909 with an annual pension of 1,000 Sterling Pounds. Loss of office was a personal disaster because most of the Malay administrators lacked personal wealth. They, and their fathers before them, have made their livelihood by service to the ruler. They did not own land or possess other personal wealth. Abdul Rahman spent his time in exile as a ward to brahim's young sons Ismail (later Sultan), Abu Bakar and Ahmad while they were attending schools in London. Ibrahim had come to England and looked into the arrangements for his sons and had contacted Abdul Rahman.

To Anderson the enforced removal of Abdul Rahman was a necessary prelude to the establishment of more overt British influence in Johor. He was to be proved more wrong. Ibrahim showed he was still his  father's son. He finally relented to have a General Advisor Douglas Graham Campbell in January 1910 but with certain conditions. British and Malay officers are to be of the same status. Johor Malays are given preference in government appointments. Except for the General Advisor all British officers are to don Johor uniform. The British flag is not permitted to be raised. The official language is both Malay and English. The Sultan retained the entire personal control of the Johor Military Force.

In  1918 the Federal government requested a loan from Johor. Rather than giving a loan Ibrahim decided to settle the loan of $1 1,052,000 given to Johor for the construction of the railway. This settlement was seven years earlier than schedule. It reflected the resentment br ahim held against the British idea and to prove Johor is able to stand on its own  finances. 


Abdul Rahman married Che' Lembek a niece of Dato' Yahaya bin Abu Talib an officer in the Johor Military Force. She died in 1885 when Abdul Rahman was accompanying Abu Bakar to London to sign the Anglo-Johor Treaty. She left a daughter Rahmah who later married Dato' Abdullah bin Jaafar a relative of Dato'  Bentara Luar Mohammad Salleh bin Perang. A  reception was held in the residence of Ungku Abdul Majid, Abu Bakar's younger brother on  12 June 1895 to welcome Dato'  Sri Amar DiRaja and his wife on their arrival from Europe. He had married the daughter of Herman Katz,  the proprietor of Katz Bros. Ltd. a department store in Singapore. Herman Katz was conferred the Dato'  Paduka Mahkota Johor in  1890 for services rendered to Abu Bakar on his trips to Frankfurt. Herman Katz had ccompanied Prince Henry of Prussia brother of the German Kaiser on his second visit to Johor on 24 February 1898.

gustelreis
Auguste (Gustel) Reis (Abdul Rahman second wife)


In  1929 Ibrahim on his visit to London graciously granted an audience to Abdul Rahman in Grosvenor House, Mayfair. Abdul Rahman kissed the extended hand of Ibrahim as a sign of loyalty. Abdul Rahman presented Ibrahim a life size oil painting of Sultan Abu Bakar resplendent in  full royal regalia. Abdul Rahman had the painting as his personal collection. To this day the painting is exhibited in the Istana Besar as a sign of appreciation by Ibrahim. In Malay custom when a ruler grants an audience and extends his hand it meant he has forgiven that person. In reality Abdul Rahman was never disloyal to Ibrahim, neither did he commit treason. He was exiled for being a pawn in a strategy of extending indirect British ruIe.

Abdul Rahman died on  10 September 1931 at age 71.He was buried at Brookwood Cemetery, Surrey. His wife was buried next to him on her demise. They were survived by their two sons Dr Murad  and Maarof. 

The jaundiced and controversial aspects of Abdul Rahman's performance and rhetoric of colonialist domination have clouded his achievements. He took a leading part in the establishment of the education system. He was the founder of Pakatan Belajar Mengajar Pengetahuan Bahasa a literary society later known as the Royal Society of Malay Literature Johor to widen the vocabulary and use of the Malay language. He was responsible for the use of the Malay language as the official and working language of the government. His emphasis on the Jawi script is still in force as all official correspondence with the palace and decisions of the Executive Council are to be written in Malay with Jawi script.

Abdul Rahman was the expert in foreign relations and policies. He had traveled far and wide to promote Johor internationally.  He  was in Chicago in  1893 for an exhibition of Johor State regalia. He had presented a talk to the Geographical Society in London when introducing the map of  Johor plotted by Dato’ Bentara Luar  in  1894. He arranged for the map to be exhibited in Adelaide.

In his time as State Secretary he made regulations, in the nature of general orders, on civil service procedure and financial accountability. He is credited with advising Abu Bakar to promulgate the first written constitution of any Malay state, with its provision against any surrender of sovereignty to a foreign power.

lbrahim's Abdul Rahman claimed a greater degree of independence than Abu Bakar. He repeatedly resisted British advice and attempted to thwart British intent, in particular the FMS railway project. These achievements and qualities have earned Abdul Rahman the status of a paladin and champion of Johor's  independence.



ABDUL RAHMAN ANDAK 
DAN KEDAULATAN BAHASA MELAYU

Abdul Rahman Andak adalah anak kepada Haji Andak bin Jamak.  Beliau adalah anak Johor yang pertama melanjutkan pelajaran di England pada 1870 sebelum memulakan kerjayanya dalam Jabatan Perkhidmatan Awam Johor (JCS) dan berakhir dengan jawatan Setiausaha Kerajaan Negeri. 
Disebabkan mempunyai pendidikan Inggeris, beliau mempunyai hubungan yang rapat dengan pegawai Inggeris dan pedagang asing di Johor.

Tugas utama yang dilakukan oleh Abdul Rahman ialah mengawal hubungan yang dijalankan di antara kerajaan Johor dengan pihak Inggeris. Tugas yang dilakukan sememangnya berat dan beliau harus menentukan agar hubungan berjalan dengan seimbang.

Disebabkan keadaan itu, Inggeris tidak dapat mengambil kesempatan untuk menguasai dan menjajah negeri Johor. Beliau menjalankan tugasnya dengan baik sehingga ada di kalangan pegawai Inggeris yang tidak menyukainya kerana sikapnya yang tegas terhadap mereka.

Dalam menyelamatkan Johor dari terperangkap dengan muslihat penjajah, Abdul Rahman selaku Penasihat Sultan bertanggungjawab menasihat Sultan Abu Bakar menandatangani teriti persahabatan dengan Inggeris pada 1885, Perlembagaan Negeri Johor 1895 dan menyekat percubaan Inggeris melantik Penasihat Am Inggeris.

Pada 1888, Abdul Rahman Andak bersama putera Abdullah Munsyi, Datuk Muhammad Ibrahim Munsyi membuka lembaran baru memperjuangkan kedaulatan Bahasa Melayu dengan mengasaskan Pakatan Belajar-Mengajar Pengetahuan Bahasa (PBMPB) di Johor Bahru.

Walaupun berpendidikan Inggeris, beliau mewujudkan kesedaran untuk memperjuangkan kemajuan bahasa Melayu secara berkumpulan melalui PBMPB. Tujuannya untuk mengkaji dan mempelajari bahasa Melayu agar pengetahuan bahasa Melayu itu lebih mudah disebarkan kepada orang Melayu.

Usaha yang utama organisasi ini (PBMPB) ialah menterjemahkan istilah atau perkataan daripada bahasa Inggeris ke dalam bahasa Melayu. Beberapa perkataan yang dicipta ketika itu dan kekal hingga sekarang adalah seperti setiausaha, pejabat dan kerja raya. 
Pendekatan yang diamalkan Abdul Rahman termasuk usaha melahirkan ramai bijak pandai Melayu melalui pendidikan menyebabkan wujud 'taktik kotor' untuk menyingkirkannya bagi mengelakkan pengaruhnya berkembang.

Inggeris mendapati selagi ada Abdul Rahman Andak mereka sukar menguasai Johor. Oleh itu, Sultan Ibrahim dipengaruhi untuk menamatkan perkhidmatan beliau dan 'disemadikan' di England pada 1909.

Gabenor Anderson bertindak menyingkir Abdul Rahman dengan persetujuan Sultan Ibrahim dan mencadangkan Abdul Rahman dibayar pencen 1000 pounds sterling setahun. Keadaan ini membolehkan Inggeris bertapak di Johor pada 1909 dan menguasai Johor mulai 1914. 
Situasi itu menyebabkan Abdul Rahman membawa diri ke London dan meninggal dunia di sana, namun jasanya tetap dikenang sebagai seorang daripada tokoh yang membawa pembaharuan dalam pendidikan khususnya perjuangan bahasa Melayu.

Walaupun tidak membabitkan sebarang penentangan atau tumpah darah dalam memperjuangkan bangsa, Abdul Rahman tetap dikenang dalam usahanya mengasaskan PBMPB. 
Antara 1935 hingga 1947, PBMPB menghasilkan 34 buku, 16 daripadanya mengenai bahasa yang meliputi perkamusan, tatabahasa, ejaan dan daftar kata, manakala 18 lagi mengenai sejarah, kebudayaan dan laporan.

Dalam bidang peristilahan pula, PBMPB memainkan fungsi besar mencipta beberapa istilah baru seperti pesuruhjaya, warta, jurucakap, jadual waktu dan timbalan. 
Abdul Rahman dianggap sebagai pemimpin pertubuhan terkenal dalam memberi nafas kepada organisasi itu. Namun begitu pertubuhan itu tidak kekal dan pada 1904 usaha dibuat untuk menghidupkannya kembali.

Organisasi itu semakin tidak bermaya sehinggalah pada 1934, baginda Sultan Johor bersetuju memberi bantuan RM2,000. Nama Pakatan Belajar Mengajar Pengetahuan Bahasa ditukar kepada Pakatan Bahasa Melayu dan Persuratan Buku-buku Diraja (PBMPB). Gelaran 'Diraja' dianugerah oleh Sultan Johor, Sultan Ibrahim Ibni Sultan Abu Bakar pada 14 April 1935.

Sumbangan awal Abdul Rahman itu diakui banyak memberi kesan dalam perkembangan Bahasa Melayu sehingga membawa kepada penubuhan Balai Pustaka pada Jun 1956 sebelum ditukar nama kepada Dewan Bahawa Pustaka (DBP) pada September 1956.

Abdul Rahman dilahirkan pada 1850 kemudian (setelah bersara) menetap di London dan berkahwin dengan Gustel Reis. mendapat tiga anak lelaki iaitu Henry, Mansour dan Walter.  Beliau meninggal dunia pada 10 September 1930 di London dan dikebumikan di Tanah Perkuburan Islam Woking, London.


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