Monday, March 9, 2015


Fail:KLIA MTB&Tower.jpg

Pada tahun 60an dulu, semasa aku di sekolah rendah, satu dari keinginan atau impian ialah melawat Kuala Lumpur, ibu kota Malaysia.  Masa itu negara baru beberapa tahun mencapai kemerdekaan. Pembangunan negara di bawah pimpinan Tunku Abdul Rahman baru sahaja bermula.  Antara binaan mega yang baru dibina ialah Masjid Negara, Bangunan Parlimen, Lapangan Terbang Subang dan Muzium Negara.  Sehingga tahun 1980an, binaan-binaan ini kekal menjadi simbol kebanggan rakyat Malaysia.

Apabila Tun Razak mengambil-alih pucuk pimpinan negara pada tahun 1970, beliau lebih menumpukan kepada program pembangunan rakyat dan pemantapan ekonomi negara setelah berlaku tragedi 13 Mei 1969. Tiada 'mega project'  dilaksanakan.  Begitu juga zaman kepimpinan Tun Hussein Onn.  Beliau mengutamakan pemantapan perpaduan dan ekonomi negara yang masih belum pulih apabila Tun Razak meninggal dunia pada usia yang masih muda dengan meninggalkan agenda pembangunan yang masih panjang.  Tun Hussein hanya sempat merancang pembinaan Jambatan Pulau Pinang tetapi belum sempat melaksanakannya.

Bermula dari tahun 1981 (setelah 24 tahun negara mencapai kemerdekaan) apabila Dr Mahathir mengambil-alih pucuk pimpinan pentadbiran negara, beliau tidak menoleh ke belakang.  Bermula dari tahun pertama pimpinannya hinggalah beliau bersara pada tahun 2003, satu demi satu projek mega dilaksanakan dan sebahagiannya di luar pemikiran rakyat Malaysia sendiri. Sila baca TAJUK 38: LEGASI MAHATHIR.

SALAH SATU binaan yang menjadi kebanggaan negara Malaysia ialah KLIA di Sepang yang menggantikan Lapangan Terbang Antarabangsa di Subang. 


Satu kemudahan yang amat berfedah kepada pengguna KLIA. Menaiki ERL dari L Sentral ke Terminal Antarabangsa KLIA hanya mengambil masa 28 minit sahaja.

Kali pertama aku menggunakan perkhidmatan KLIA Sepang ialah pada tahun 1998, beberapa bulan setelah ia dibuka untuk penerbangan.  Penerbangan pertama aku menggunakan KLIA Sepang ialah untuk tugas PDI di Rome Italy.

Berikut adalah artikel mengenai KLIA yang aku salin dari wikipedia.

Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) is one of Asia's major aviation hubs and is a destination in itself. It is located at the top of the southern corridor of Peninsular Malaysia, bordering the states of Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. It is situated in the Sepang district, approximately 50 km from the capital city, Kuala Lumpur.

KLIA is a unique airport because it has within its boundaries all that is needed for business, entertainment and relaxation. The airport is part and parcel of the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) where placement of high technology industries are being actively pursued.
KLIA is surrounded by four main cities -Kuala Lumpur, Shah Alam, Seremban and Malacca. The airport is a catchment area and offers exciting opportunities for businesses. Every effort has been made to create a homely airport with a serene environment.

The Main Terminal Building area was designed using the concept of 'Airport in the forest, forest in the airport', in which it is surrounded by green space. This was done with the co-operation of the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia. An entire section of rain forest was transplanted from the jungle and placed in the Satellite Building.


For car racing enthusiasts, a Formula One racetrack is located near the airport and the Malaysian Formula One Grand Prix is scheduled in March every year. The track also caters for an array of other activities throughtout the year, including motorcycle and rally racing. 
For a lived-in environment, the 80-room Airside Transit Hotel is located in the Satellite Building itself and provides a perfect respite for the travel-weary transit passengers. In addition, a 441-room 5-star hotel, The Pan Pacific Hotel Kuala Lumpur International Airport, is only a 5-minute walking distance from the airport terminal building for well-heeled travellers to unwind in style and luxury.

Since its inauguration in year 1998, KLIA has won numerous awards from international organisations such as Skytrax and International Air Transport Association. With its continuous effort to provide excellent services to passengers, the airport has emerged as one of the top five airports in the world.
KLIA's commitment to promote environment responsibility for all local and foreign travellers was recognised by Green Globe, making it the first and only airport in the world to receive Green Globe 21 certificate in year 2004 and onwards.

The facts of KLIA runaways are:
  • Direction: 14L/32R - 13,530 feet (4124 meters)
  • Direction: 14R/32L - 13,288 feet (4056 meters).
Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) (IATA: KUL, ICAO: WMKK) is Malaysia's main international airport and is also one of the major airports of South East Asia, giving it huge, even multinational, catchment area. It is about 50 kilometres (31 mi) from Malaysia's capital, Kuala Lumpur. The airport is in the Sepang district of southern Selangor state. KLIA's construction cost RM8.5 billion or US$3.5 billion. The airport can currently handle 35 million passengers and 1.2 million tonnes of cargo a year. In 2010, it handled 34,087,636 passengers; in 2011 it handled 669,849 metric tonnes of cargo. It was ranked the 14th busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic, and is the 5th busiest international airport in Asia. It was ranked the 29th busiest airport by cargo traffic in 2010.  The Bernama News Agency reported a modest growth in traffic in the first six months of 2011, with an almost 13% increase from 16.2 million to 18.3 million passengers. 

The airport is operated by Malaysia Airports (MAB) Sepang Sdn Bhd and is the major hub of Malaysia Airlines, MASkargo, AirAsia, AirAsia X and Department of Civil Aviation.


The ground breaking ceremony for Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) took place on 1 November 1991 when the government decided that the existing Kuala Lumpur International Airport, officially then known as Subang International Airport (now Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport) could not handle future demand. The 4th Prime Minister of Malaysia's Tun Doctor Mahathir Bin Mohamad instigated the project as part of the development of the Multimedia Super Corridor a grand development plan for the nation.

Upon KLIA's completion, Subang International Airport's Terminal 1 building was demolished.Malaysia Airports agreed to redevelop the remaining Terminal 3 to create Subang International Airport a specialist airport for turboprop and charter planes surrounded by a residential area and a business park.

The IATA airport code KUL was inherited from Subang International Airport, which currently handles only turboprop aircraft, general aviation and military aircraft. Subsequently, Subang International Airport's IATA code was changed to SZB.

Current Site

The airport's site spans 100 km2, of former agricultural land and is one of the world's largest airport sites. An ambitious three-phase development plan anticipates KLIA to have five runways and two terminals each with two satellite terminals.  Phase One involved the construction of the main terminal and one satellite terminal, giving a capacity of 25 million passengers, and two full service runways. The Phase One airport had sixty contact piers, twenty remote parking bays with eighty aircraft parking positions, four maintenance hangars and fire stations. Phase Two, designed to increase capacity to 35 million passengers per year is largely complete. Phase Three is anticipated to increase capacity to 100 million passengers per year. 
  • Kuala Lumpur International Airport was officially building of construction on 1 February 1993.
  • Kuala Lumpur International Airport was officially completed to passed on 1 January 1995.
  • Kuala Lumpur International Airport was officially opened to public on 1 January 1996.
  • Kuala Lumpur International Airport was officially excellent to renovated on 1 July 1996.
Kuala Lumpur International Airport was officially inaugurated by the 10th YDP Agong, almarhum Tuanku Jaafar Alhaj on 27 June 1998 at 20:30 MST as moment of reckoning as the new airport it sparkling like a fairyland and visible from as far as 15-kilometre away of beckoned the 1500-spectators who came to witness in 25,000-workers a 24-hrs in daily built the airport within 7-years at opening a week ahead of  Hong Kong International Airport it was officially closing ceremonies by almarhum Tuanku Jaafar Alhaj based in Subang 3-days later on 30 June 1998 in time for the 1998 Commonwealth Games. The first domestic arrival was Malaysian Airlines flight MH1263 from Kuantan Airport at 07:10 MST. The first international arrival was flight MH188 from Male' International Airport (Maldives Island) at 07:30 MST (UTC + 0800). The first domestic departure was flight MH1432 to Langkawi at 07:20 MST; the first international departure was flight MH84 to Beijing at 09:00 MST.


The inauguration of the airport was marked with problems. Aerobridge and bay allocation systems broke down, queues built up throughout the airport and baggage handling broke down. Bags were lost and there were waits of over five hours. Most of these issues were remedied eventually, though baggage handling system was plagued with problems until it was put up for a complete replacement tender in 2007.

The airport suffered greatly reduced traffic with the general reduction in economic activity brought about by the East Asian financial crisis, SARS, bird flue epidemic (Avian flu), the global financial crisis and the swine flu pandemic. 1998 saw a reduction of passenger numbers some airlines, including All Nippon Airways, British Airways, Lufthansa (later reinstated) and Northwest Airlines, terminated their loss making services to KLIA. KLIA's first full year of operations in 1999, in its Phase One manifestation (capacity of 25 million passengers per year), saw only 13.2 million passengers.  Passenger numbers eventually increased to 21.1 million in 2004 and 23.2 million in 2005 — though short of the originally estimated 25 million passengers per year by 2003.

Operations and infrastructure
    • Floor area: 514,694 m sq (692,627 m sq + LCCT)
    • Handling capacity: 40 millions (70 m + LCCT)
    • Parking bays: 46 (serobridge), 68 contact) and 21 (remote)
  • Main Terminal Building
    • Opened: 27 June 1998 (operational)
    • Floor area: 336,000 m sq.
    • Handling capacity: 5 millions pax per annum
    • Parking bays: 20 aerobridge and 23 remote
  • Sattelite Terminal A
    • Opened: 27 June 1998 (Operational)
    • Floor area: 143,404 m sq
    • Handling capacity: 20 million pax per annum.
    • Parking bays: 26 aerobridge and 15 remote.
  • Low Cost Carrier Terminal (LCCT)
    • Opened: 23 March 2006
    • Floor area: 35,290 m sq
    • Handling capacity: 15 millions per annum
    • parking bay: 30
  • KLIA 2
    • Opened: estimated April 2013
    • Floor area: 242,000 m sq
    • Handling capacity: 45 million
    • Parking bay: 68
  • Bunga Raya Complex
    • Opened: 27 June 1998 (official)
    • Parking bay: 1
Architectural Concept

KLIA features a number of modern design features that assist in efficient operation of the airport. It is one of the first Asia Pacific airports to become 100% BCBP (Bar Coded Boarding Pass) capable – one of several IATA Simplifying the Business (StB) projects now live at the airport in collaboration with Malaysian Airlines and SITA.   AirAsia, a Malaysian passenger airline; MASkargo, a cargo airline; and Malaysia Airports, the Malaysian Airport authority; are headquartered on the property of KLIA.


The Passenger Terminal Complex (PTC) was built with an emphasis on allowing natural light into the building. Thus, there is a huge expanse of glass throughout the building, and the spectacular roof has cut-outs for natural light to filter in. The PTC comprises three buildings – the Main Terminal Building, the Satellite Building and the Contact Pier. Besides the 80-room hotel at the Satellite Building, there is a 450-room 5-star Pan Pacific KLIA hotel a 10 minute (indoor) walk away. Shopping spots are available in an area encompassing 85,000 square metres. Currently, the retail space at the Kuala Lumpur International Airport stands at 63,644 square metres (685,060 sq ft). The airport operator plans to increase the retail space to 103,251 square metres (1,111,380 sq ft), an 62.2% increase in retail space. Malaysia Airports's retail arm Eraman will boost retail shops to 277 from 242 and add more food and beverage outlets to 99 from 88 presently.


As there are international flights operating out from the airport, therefore terminals of the airport are equipped with immigration processing facilities and security scanning for all passengers including domestic passengers. The Satellite terminal handles most of the international flights, while the main terminal building's contact pier handles domestic traffic, regional international flights and international flights routed to other hubs within Malaysia. Malaysia Airlines operate from both terminals, where main terminal building's contact pier is their preferred terminal for domestic flights. Conversely, low cost carries such as AirAsia Group of Airlines, Tiger Airways and Cebu Pacific operates domestic and international flights out of the low cost carrier terminal.


The initial passenger growth was below average due to Asian Financial Crisis and the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2003 and the airport failed to reach its target capacity of 25 million passengers per annum (before the inclusion of low cost carrier terminal) by 2004. However, the recovery of Malaysia's economy boosted Kuala Lumpur International Airport's passenger movements, and the airport saw significant growth in traffic, hitting the 25 million passenger mark in 2007. In January 2008, the airport saw a growth of 8.3% in aircraft movements and 7.7% in passenger traffic to 2.17 million in January 2008 from 2.02 million in the same period last year.


Main Terminal Building and Contact Pier

The Main Terminal Building or Terminal 1 is located in between the two runways. The floor area of the terminal covers 336,000 square metres and the building consists of 39 square roof units, which enables future expansion of the building. There are a total of 216 check-in counters, located in 6 different islands, identified by the letters A – M (excluding I). Multi check-in services are available, designed for the use of all passengers arriving, departing or in transit. On 2 February 2007, Malaysia Airports introduces 12 integrated self check-in kiosks (CUSS) for passengers. The first airline to use that system is KLM.  A further 24 kiosks will be added later by the airport operator.


The contact pier is the rectangular-shaped terminal that is connected to the Main Terminal Building. It serves as the domestic terminal for Malaysia Airlines. Some international flights are handled there as well. Previously it used to cater to low-cost carriers' passengers. At the north side of the pier, it can only accommodate narrow-bodied aircraft. In contrast, the south side of the contact pier can accommodate Boeing 737 and Boeing 747 or similar sized aircraft.
The Malaysia Airports Holding Berhad derives 65% of its total annual revenue from non-aeronautical sources, with 35% from commercial space rental and a percentage of sale receipts. There were plans to increase and maximize the Main Terminal Building's and Contact Pier's retail area however, the plan was postponed due to Visit Malaysia Year 2007.
The gates in Main Terminal Building's contact pier has alphabet prefix of A and B for domestic flights, and G and H for international flights.

File:Klia-satelliteterminal.jpg  File:KLIA Jungle boardwalk fountain.JPG 

Satellite Terminal A

The 143,404 square metres (1,543,590 sq ft) satellite building accommodates international flights departing and arriving at KLIA. Passengers have to travel to the satellite building via the Aerotrain. There is a wide array of duty-free shops and prestige brand boutiques in the satellite building. This includes international brands such as Burberry, Harrods, Montblanc, Salvatore Ferragamo and recently, Mango has opened its first boutique at an airport in the Asian region. Among all international labels available within the terminal, some boutiques such as Harrods are only available in the airport. Liquor and perfumes are particularly popular, accounting for over half of total retail sales, followed by watches and tobacco products.  A number of restaurants and international airlines' lounges are available as well as an Airside Transit Hotel.
Within the terminal, wireless internet (Wifi) is provided free of charge. The terminal also has prayer rooms, showers and massage service. Various lounge areas are provided, some including children's play areas and movie lounge, broadcasting movie and sport channels such as HBO, MAX and FOX Movies Premium. The terminal also features a natural rainforest in the middle of the terminal, exhibiting the Malaysian forests.

Under Malaysia Airports Berhad retail optimisation plan, the retail space in satellite terminal A will be further optimized to increase its revenue derived from commercial space rental and a percentage of sale receipts to 50% by year 2010 which currently stands at 35%. Some notable improvements that will be seen after the refurbishments will be the Jungle Boardwalk which will be the first of its kind in the world and larger mezzanine floor to accommodate F&B outlets and viewing galleries.

The gates in Satellite Terminal A have the prefix C.The Satellite A terminal has 27 boarding gates altogether.

Low Cost Carrier Terminal (LCCT)

The Low Cost Carrier Terminal (LCCT) was opened at KL International Airport to cater to the growing passengers of the low cost airlines, especially the passengers of Malaysia's "no-frills" airline, AirAsia. Construction of the LCC Terminal was on a fast-track basis beginning June 2005 at an approximate cost of RM 108 million.  Prior to its operation as a terminal for low cost airlines, the LCCT was used for cargo purposes. It is intended that it will return to this usage once the new budget terminal, KLIA 2, is opened in October 2012.

File:KLIA LCCT frontview.jpg

The 35,290 square-meter terminal is designed and built to suit the low cost carrier business model that requires only basic terminal amenities. In order to offer lower landing fees, handling fees and airport taxes, it cuts back on amenities such as aerobridges, rail connectivity, elaborate physical structures and decorations in the passenger terminal building. There is no transfer facility to the main terminal. Passengers who need to make transfers need to clear immigration, collect their luggage, clear customs, make their way to the main terminal and re-checkin with the respective airline.

LCCT is located on the opposite side of the apron from the Main Terminal Building, near the air cargo area. By road, LCCT is about 20 km from the Main Terminal Building. The 'terminal' name is somewhat of a misnomer, as it has caused controversy and confusion, many passengers have missed flights expecting it to be linked with KLIA, when, in fact, it acts as a de facto separate airport.

However, the current Low Cost Carrier Terminal is a temporary solution for the increasing demand of no-frills airline passengers. Therefore, Malaysia Airports Holding Berhad has incorporated the plans to build a new permanent LCC terminal which can accommodate 30 million passengers per year. In the mean time, the airport operator decided to expand the current terminal to keep up with the increasing demand. The new arrival hall was first open on 15 December 2008.  This airport was the first airport to have separation between normal carriers and low cost carrier.

The terminal is due to be replaced by the new low cost carriers terminal, KLIA2 when the terminal comes online on April 2013. The gates in LCCT have alphabet prefix of P for domestic departures and T for international departures.

KL City Air Terminal

KL City Air Terminal, sometimes known as Kuala Lumpur City Air Terminal or KL CAT located at KL Sentral is a virtual extension of KL International Airport where city check-in services are provided. KL City Air Terminal is recognized by International Air Transport Association which carries IATA designation XKL. Currently there are only 4 airlines providing city check-in services, they are Cathay Pacific, Emirates Airline, Malaysia Airlines and Royal Brunei Airlines. However, the situation is due to be changed as 10 SITA's AirportConnect CUTE (Common Use Terminal Equipment) were installed on 10 check-in desks in KL CAT that enables all airlines to offer city check-in service for their passengers.   Apart from providing check-in services, the virtual terminal operator, Express Rail Link Sdn Bhd which operates KLIA Express is planning to roll out baggage check-out service in January 2008 whereby passengers only collect their baggage and declare taxable items in Kuala Lumpur City Air Terminal. 
Satu kajian yang dilaksanakan oleh Skytrax World Airport Awards (ditubuhkan pada tahun 1989) ke atas 'travellers' yang menggunakan  lapangan terbang lebih 160 buah negara di seluruh dunia untuk tahun 2012 telah menghasilkan keputusan 20 lapangan terban terbaik di dunia berikut (dalam kurungan ialah kedudukan tahun 2011):
  1. Incheon International Airport (3)
  2. Singapore  International Airport, Changi(2)
  3. Hong Kong International Airport, Kai Tak (1)
  4. Amsterdam International Airport, Schipoll (6)
  5. Beijing Capital International Airport (5)
  6. Munich Airport (4)
  7. Zurich Airport (7)
  8. Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Sepang (9)
  9. Vancouver International Airport (12)
  10. Central Japan International Airport (11)
  11. London Heathrow Airport (16)
  12. Copenhagen Airport (10)
  13. Auckland International Airport (8)
  14. Tokyo International Airport, Haneda (17)
  15. Frankfurt Main Airport (20)
  16. Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport (21)
  17. Narita International Airport (19)
  18. Abu Djabi International Airport (26)
  19. Kansai International Airport, Japan (14)
  20. Sydney Airport (40)

World's Best Low-Cost Carrier Airport
  1. London Stansted Airport, UK
  2. Luton Airport, UK
  3. Brussels Charleroi, Belgium
  4. Kuala Lumpur LCCT, Sepang, Malaysia
  5. Frankfurt Hahn Airport, Germany
The 2012 World's Top Airlines (in bracket 2011)

Qatar Airwaysn (1)

Asiana Airlines (3)

Singapore Airlines (2)

Cathay Pacific Airways (4)

ANA All Nippon Airways (11)

Etihad Airways (6)

Turkish Airlines (9)

Emirates (10)

Thai Airways International (5)

Malaysia Airlines (12)

Garuda Indonesia (19)

Virgin Australia (32)

EVA Air (16)

Lufthansa (15)

Qantas Airways (8)

Korean Air (24)

Air New Zealand (7)

Swiss Int'l Air Lines (13)

Air Canada (21)

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